Remember back when we were kids and heard the fire alarm bell in school? On cue, we lined up in an orderly manner and dutifully marched out of the classroom single file, no talking, and keep your hands to yourself. The super loud fire alarm bell and the discipline of the fire drill was all that we needed to know to be safe. How times have changed!

Yesterday’s fire alarm bell will not meet today’s requirements for in-building Emergency Communications Systems (ECS). One big difference between the in-building notification systems of today and yesterday is the need to notify people about more than just fire. A mass notification system must articulate emergency information with voice instructions quickly enough to help people make life saving decisions. In a nutshell, it is all about getting the right message to the right place at the right time. Simply ringing a fire bell is no longer sufficient. Cell calling and text only messages also do not fit the bill. Today’s more stringent codes call for hardened, dedicated alerting devices installed in buildings that inform with the kind of actionable information that makes a difference.

Various industry and government groups such as The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) and the Department of Defense have written codes to raise the bar in the field of emergency communications.

Facilities managers, school administrators and emergency managers who aspire to comply with new standards, are presented a clear choice: either upgrade your fire alarm system or implement an independent ECS. The new code from NFPA allows for both approaches, and unless otherwise mandated by law, the choice is voluntary. The core issue is spelled out in the 2010 edition of the National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code Handbook (NFPA-72 2010)


24.3.3* Non-required (Voluntary) Emergency Communications Systems.

An installation of an ECS is voluntary when the owner decides that a system is needed to meet the fire safety or emergency response plan for the occupancy. Although there is no building code or NFPA lOl®, Life Safety Code®, requirement for the system, the designer and the installer of an ECS must understand the owner’s goals and objectives and the system’s intended use.

Challenges in upgrading fire alarm systems

So let’s look at the upgrade path. One of the problems created by technological progress is that retrofitting old fire alarm systems to meet new codes is not fast, easy or cheap. Many buildings have fire alarm systems that date back to the 1960’s, 70’s and 80’s and do not support voice evacuation technology.

“This is not a simple plug and play replacement,” says Andy Flowers, Business Manager for Cam Dex Security Corp in Kansas City, Missouri. Founded in 1957, Cam-Dex has years of experience in the quality design, assembly, testing, installation and maintenance of integrated security systems. “If you have multiple buildings with fire alarm systems installed by multiple vendors over the years, basically you are starting over. While the salesman may say you need a few speakers, in reality they will need to pull the panels off the walls and replace devices on the notification side. This means adding amps and speakers which means more power and new wiring.”

In many cases existing systems are non-addressable zoned systems having little remaining expansion capability. Interconnecting two systems with the goal of having them operate as one voice evacuation system can cause numerous headaches.

Flowers estimates that only about 5% of all fire alarms systems have voice evacuation equipment that will meet the new 2010 code.  If installed before 2000, your current system will likely not comply with the current detector placement, audibility and visual requirements of the current edition of the NFPA Code. Many systems installed prior to 1990, may not comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Pull stations may have to be lowered and strobe lights may have to be added for ADA compliance. Upgrading a fire alarm system may force upgrading the entire building to meet ADA standards.

Want voice? Better have $$$

As a rule of thumb, the cost of upgrading is essentially the same as installing a new system.

“You have to re-cable, disconnect old devices, install new devices and then install new panels that support the voice and intelligibility requirements.” explains Flowers. “A typical building that would cost $50,000 for a non-voice system, would cost $50,000 to retrofit with voice evacuation technology.” Fire panels can run from $5,000 to $50,000 depending on how many amplifiers and speakers must be supported.

Sampling of Fire Alarm Upgrade Costs




5/07/2010 *

Replace Fire Alarm system to include a new planned, systematic, addressable, code compliant system throughout the Medical Center.

VA Boston Healthcare System Brockton, MA



Removal of existing Siemens Fire Alarm System

Design and replacement with new Fire Alarm/Mass Notification System

DallasVA Campus of the VA North Texas Health Care System


01/22/2010 *

Architect/Engineering Services only to design conversion of the existing hard-wire Fire Alarm System to be fully addressable including voice and strobe notification.

VA Medical Center West Palm Beach, FL


11/17/2009 **

Upgrade fire alarm system to meet new code in a Aycock residence hall (single building)

EastCarolina University


10/20/2009 *

Replace the entire fire alarm system including wiring, conduit, initiating devices, signaling devices, control panels, water flow switches and tamper switches with a new addressable system with voice notification.

VA Medical Center, Salem, VA.


Sources: *        **

Can you understand me now?

Meeting voice intelligibility requirements alone can be a major undertaking. To meet code, system designers must identify all of the Acoustically Distinguished Spaces (ADS) in a building and conduct audibility tests to determine the number and location of speakers. To put it in perspective, NFPA -72 cites the acoustically distinguishable spaces in a single building as including:

  • rooms under 400 sq. ft in size
  • each subdivision of a room with moveable partitions - such as a meeting room
  • a change in ceiling height of more than 20%
  • a change in acoustical finish such as carpet or floor tile
  • large areas where there might be noise sources such as an HVAC fan, machinery or other ambient noise
  • a room with significant changes in furnishings such as tables, desks, low dividers and high shelving
  • stairwells and hallways
  • Essentially any noteworthy change in the acoustical environment within an area will mandate consideration of that portion of the area to be treated as an acoustic zone.

Testing may be required in each ADS as part of the system design.

The precision notification path

The good news about meeting new code requirements is that they only apply to new construction in locales where the planning commission has adopted NFPA -72 2010. In other words, you are not obligated, unless mandated by law, to outfit your buildings with voice evacuation fire alarm systems. Therefore, if you intend to improve your emergency notification efforts, it is worth exploring an investment in an independent precision notification system.

“This is why the independent ECS systems are a great solution. They have the same goals and intent of NFPA 72 but you can get there without being dragged down by the codification.” said Flowers.

The primary advantage of an independent ECS is that it can be layered in with an existing fire alarm system without having to touch any of the fire alarm infrastructure, freeing you from the burden and cost of compliance. As a result these systems are less costly to install and often provide greater intelligence than a typical fire alarm system. Consider the following benefits:

  • Intelligence. The biggest difference is the intelligence of a precision notification system. Command center software for a precision notification system allows you to collect, store and disseminate emergency information from a central location. Browser-based programs allow for multiple users to access the system from remote locations. Some systems are intelligent enough to detect system faults such as loss of power and send email notices to the appropriate personnel.
  • Integration. This is a big one. The right software serves as a platform to integrate multiple notification efforts. This is where video surveillance, IP phones, text/cell calling, outdoor sirens and other vertical systems can be consolidated into one system enabling a “one button to press” approach to emergency notification.
  • Redundancy. Ask yourself what happens to your emergency notification when phone power and Internet go down? Redundancy in communications and power are critical. Some systems use multiple wireless network communications such as WiFi or mesh networks. Networked devices provide real time status of the system and provide two-way communications – something your fire alarm pull station, strobe and speaker cannot do. Also multiple power options such as low power DC and Power over Ethernet (PoE) along with battery back up provide operational durability.
  • Cost. Typically voice-capable ECS devices cost from $800 to $1,500 including installation. Shop around to compare features and functionality. But insist on voice. NFPA has it right that voice makes all the difference.

In the end, we always hope that new standards and codes for emergency communications will raise the bar for everyone, making the world a safer place. But the fact is that it takes a long time for the effects of a new code to be seen in the street. Rather than wait, there is much that can be done to take a step forward without shouldering the time and expense of meeting a new directive.