To minimize risk, two-factor authentication has become a necessity and is now generally being adopted. Two-factor authentication is the combination of two out of the three possible methods (something you know, something you have, something you are).
One basic example is ATM access which requires a card (something you have) and a PIN (something you know). In healthcare provider settings, the two authentication factors most commonly used to secure data are the proximity card that the clinician already uses to access the facility and a PIN or password. To log on, all the clinician needs to do is tap a card and type a PIN.